As a school counselor, you may or may not work with a student who has an eating disorder. Regardless, being aware of the symptoms of an eating disorder is an important step in assisting students in their road to recovery. In 2010, Lynn Shellcross wrote an article about the growing problem of eating disorders among elementary school aged children. When eating disorders are not identified early in students, they have the potential of growing into high school students who are at risk for serious illness and even death. Shellcross referenced researchers who found it imperative that counselors, whether school, mental health, college, or family, have an understanding of the deadliness of eating disorders. In order to understand eating disorders, counselors must be aware that it is not about food, but the student's inability to control the world around them. Students who suffer from an eating disorder often present in our office with anxiety and go to great links to hide their disorder. Having knowledge about eating disorders and the importance of early detection is important in identifying students who may be suffering from this mental health issue.
What is an Eating Disorder?
According to the National Eating Disorders Association, eating disorders are "serious but treatable illnesses with medical and psychiatric aspects." The DSM-5 recognizes several types of eating disorders in their diagnosis including: Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia, Binge Eating Disorder, and Other Specified Feeding or Eating Disorder (OSFED). Although people with eating disorders concentrate on food and weight, the reality is that eating disorders often coexist with depression, anxiety, and obsessive compulsive disorder. According to the Academy for Eating Disorders, there are nine truths people, particularly school staff, should know about eating disorders.
These truths include:
Although a student may look healthy, he or she may be extremely ill.
Parents are not to blame, and should be considered allies in recovery.
An eating disorder diagnosis is a health crisis that disrupts daily life functioning (including academic success).
Having an eating disorder is not a choice, but is a serious "biologically influenced illness." Eating disorders affect students of "all genders, ages, races, ethnicities, body shapes and weights, sexual orientations, and socioeconomic statuses."
Eating disorders increase the risk for both suicide and death due to medical complications.
Biology and environmental factors can enhance the development of eating disorders.
Biology alone does not predict the development eating disorders.
Early detection and intervention are important for full recovery!
See Kati Morton's videos about the different types of eating disorders.
Recognizing an Eating Disorder
Since school staff are with students at least seven hours a day, we are at an advantage of identifying when a student is experiencing a mental or physical illness. In fact, early detection of an eating disorder is the first step to treatment and healing. So, who are the students we should be most concerned about having an eating disorder? According to the BodyWise Eating Disorder Booklet, there are signs that educators should be aware of in adolescents who are at risk for developing an eating disorder (students experiencing these signs may or may not have an eating disorder).
Be aware of the following students:
- complain about their bodies being too fat even if they appear to be normal weight or thin
- talk about being on a diet or avoiding certain foods because they are too fattening
- overweight and appear sad
- teased about their weight
- obsessed about maintaining a low weight to enhance their performance in sports, modeling, or dancing
Physical Emotional Behavioral
Weight loss or fluctuation Complaints about being too fat Constant dieting
Constantly feeling faint, tired, or cold Comments about feeling worthless Constant exercising
Dry hair/skin Frequently going to the bathroom Perfectionism
Not only is early detection important for the student to get treatment, but it is important to prevent a student from academic failure. According to the National Eating Disorders Association, an eating disorder can profoundly impact a student's cognitive function and the ability to learn. Some of the impacts on their ability to learn include:
- low iron levels which decrease memory function
- irritability caused by headaches, lethargy, or nausea
- reduction in concentration and focus due to constant dieting
- obsessive thoughts with grades due to perfectionist tendencies
- withdrawal, apathy, and social isolation from feelings of self worthlessness
- increased absenteeism as a result of physical illness
National Eating Disorder Awareness Week
This week is National Eating Disorders Awareness Week. Both the National Eating Disorders Association (NEDA) and Anorexia Nervosa & Associated Disorders have created booklets with guidelines for teachers, school nurses, school psychologists, coaches, and counselors who work with students identified as having an eating disorder, their friends, and their parents. In addition to promoting awareness, NEDA and ANRED are encouraging early detection for students through a three minute screening and self help screening.
Want to get involved? Check out these events.
February 22nd - Google Hangout-Early Intervention and Eating Disorders (2 PM EST)
Need more information? Check out these additional resources.
Booklets & Pamphlets for Educators
NEDA Educator Booklet
ANAD School Guidelines
National Institute of Mental Health Brochure on Eating Disorders (Downloadable)
Guidelines for School Counselors
Cutting, Eating Disorders and Confidentiality
Facts and Webinars About Eating Disorders
Anorexia Fact sheet
Binge Eating Disorder Fact Sheet
Athletes and Eating Disorders
Fast Facts on Eating Disorders
Kati Morton's Videos on Eating Disorders
Webinars on Eating Disorders
The Truth About Eating Disorders
What Does Recovery Look Like Webinar
Eating Disorder Referral Information (US)
Eating Disorder Information (UK)
Websites and Associations
Academy for Eating Disorders Facebook Page
Eating Disorder Foundation
International Association of Eating Disorders Professionals Foundation - Offers courses and certifications in eating disorder education.
EDAC - Eating Disorders Association of Canada
ANZAED - Australia and New Zealand Academy for Eating Disorders
Eating Disorders Hope
Chats and Conferences
Twitter Chat - March 9th-12:00 PM-Treatment and Recovery
ANAD Eating Disorder Conference - September 9, 2016
International Conference on Eating Disorders - May 5-7, 2016, San Francisco, CA